A very useful little book from various developers and others: things they wish they'd known before starting out. A very sensible contribution from Debian's own Evan Prodromou amongst other names I knew and recognised and some interesting folk I'd not heard of.
http://open-advice.org/Open-Advice.pdf is the downloadable PDF although source and so on is also available. There are likely to be forums for comments and improvements.
[UPDATE - I've just had a go at the training exercises listed at openhatch.org which are linked from the site. Not a bad revision on patching/SVN/git and generally using the tools needed initially to contribute to FLOSS. A good job well done]